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From Street Mobilization to Political Mobilization | MOULAY HICHAM FOUNDATION
Transition in Tunisia - Towards a New Citizenship

The concept of citizenship, beyond the mere legal character, is becoming the social dynamic driving individuals to participate in the construction of a democratic society. No one-is able to predict what model of citizenship the current transformations in Arab countries will lead to. In the Arab world the question of citizenship is an ongoing and endless debate. Because it is linked to rights, the modern concept of citizenship has been framed within a legal character. Regimes considered the implementation of a strong State a priority, beyond other considerations. Civic duties related to individual freedoms, were either ignored or trampled or repressed.

It is now widely recognized that separating freedoms, economic development and citizenship from democracy is quite impossible. Historically, citizenship in western countries is the result of different confrontations and agreements according to groups, people or times. Today, contestation of established regimes assists in emergence of a new generation that does not negotiate its citizenship, but rather assumes it with all its complexity and diversity. In this regard, Tunisia is one of the countries where the redefinition of the State’s  role and the citizen’s  place is being negotiated. After the Constituent Assembly was elected and the provisional government took office dominated by Ennahda Islamists, the ongoing democratic transition helped to clarify the political reality of the country, There are numerous and significant expectations, particularly in the areas of justice, morality of the public life and changes in political practices. The judicial institution is at the heart of all the debates.

Here again, transition will be slow and protracted. Nevertheless, large segments of the population are impatient. How is the government coalition facing the popular contestation? What is the legitimacy of the political parties? How does avoiding challenge not to translate into mistrust? Tunisians have decided to renegotiate their social contract and redefine their citizenship. These processes cannot be concluded swiftly. While its institutions are being widely questioned, the State needs to restore its legitimacy and rehabilitate itself With debates on identity and the search for ideological references, economic urgency and international identity, Tunisia has become the laboratory of a rising Arab democracy.

American Middle Eastern Network for Dialogue at Stanford (AMENDS)

April 10-14, 2012

The Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law together with the American Middle Eastern Network for Dialogue at Stanford (AMENDS) present the inaugural summit convening 40 delegates from across the Middle East and North America at Stanford University April 10-14, 2012.


These inspirational young leaders will be sharing their innovative work with the Stanford community and be joined by special guest speakers from the Middle East commenting on timely topics emerging from the region.

Democratic Transition and Development in the Arab World

The Program on Arab Reform and Democracy at the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at Stanford University examines the different social and political dynamics within Arab countries and the evolution of their political systems, focusing on the prospects, conditions, and possible pathways for political reform in the region.

This multidisciplinary program brings together both scholars and practitioners--from the policy making, civil society, NGO (non-government organization), media, and political communities--as well as other actors of diverse backgrounds from the Arab world, to consider how democratization and more responsive and accountable governance might be achieved, as a general challenge for the region and within specific Arab countries.

The program aims to be a hub for intellectual capital about issues related to good governance and political reform in the Arab world, producing sound, rigorous, and thoughtful academic research grounded in hands-on work in the Arab world and allowing diverse opinions and voices to be heard.

It benefits from the rich input of the academic community at Stanford, from faculty to researchers to graduate students, as well as our partners in the Arab world and Europe.



Day One - April 26, 2012:

9:00-10:30 Welcome and Opening Panel – International & Domestic Frameworks for Development

Chair: Larry Diamond, Stanford University

Adel Abdellatif, UNDP

George Kossaifi, Dar Al-Tanmiyah

10:30-11:00 Break

11:00-12:30 Session 1: Political Economy of Reform

Chair: Hicham Ben Abdallah, Stanford University

-          Mongi Boughzala, University of Tunis El-Manar

-          Abdulwahab Alkebsi, Center for International Private Enterprise

12:30-1:30 Lunch

1:30-3:00 Session 2: Oil-Dependent Economies and Social and Political Development

Chair: Terry Karl, Stanford University (TBC)

-          Hedi Larbi, World Bank

-          Ibrahim Saif, Carnegie Middle East Center

3:00-3:30 Break

3:30-5:00 Session 3: Youth, ICTs, and Development Opportunities

Chair: Sean Yom, Temple University

-          Loubna Skalli-Hanna, American University

-          Hatoon Ajwad Al-Fassi, King Saud University


Day Two - April 27, 2012:

9:00-10:30 Session 1: Civil Society Development

Chair: Lina Khatib, Stanford University

-          Laryssa Chomiak, Centre d’Etudes Maghrebines a Tunis (CEMAT)

-          Rihab Elhaj, New Libya Foundation

10:30-11:00 Break

11:00-12:30 Session 2: Democratic Transition and the Political Development of Women

Chair: Katie Zoglin, Human Rights Lawyer

-          Valentine Moghadam, Northeastern University

-          Amaney Jamal, Princeton University

12:30-1:30 Lunch

1:30-3:00 Session 3: Minority Rights as a Key Component of Development

Chair: Joel Beinin, Stanford University

-          Mona Makram-Ebeid, American University in Cairo

-          Nadim Shehadi, Chatham House

3:00-3:15 Break

3:15-4:30 Session 4: Towards Integrated Development in the Arab World

Chair: Larry Diamond, Stanford University

-          Closing roundtable discussion: Scenarios for integrated development


4:30-5:30pm Reception


Migrations and Social Movements in the Arab World

Paris, 27-28 of June.
The chaire d’histoire du Monde arabe contemporain at Collège de France together with the Moulay Hicham Foundation have organised a workshop on the theme : Migrations and Social Movements in the Arab World.

It explored migration issues through the lens of the social movements that are shaking the region.



Workshop on the Arab Spring Revolutions

November 18-19, 2011
Participants: Olivier Roy, Amaney Jamal, Farhad Khosrokhavar, Teije Donker, Virginie Collombier, Sari Hanafi, Marwa Daoudy, Rabab El Mahdi, Ellen Lust, Carol Hakim, Bernard Haykel

Two themes and sets of questions were covered in this workshop that relate to the political developments of the “Arab Spring.” They are:


1) Can we articulate the contours of a “counter-revolutionary” coalition? What is the new political landscape that is emerging? What is the fate of the actors and activists that are engaged in contestation? What is the role of women in these revolutions and that of minorities of various kind?


2) What are the ways in which Islam is being invoked and by whom? How are Islamist movements and actors positioning themselves vis-à-vis these developments? What is the internal debate within these movements? What is the fate of the trend or movement that labels itself Salafi? How are Salafis reacting to the challenge of democratization? How is the question of the role of the Sharia being posed by the Islamic institutions and actors, in particular the Azhar, the Council of Higher Scholars (Saudi Arabia), the Muslim World League, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafists?


'From Political Activism to Democratic Change in the Arab World'

This conference focused on empowering political activism in the Arab world, and features scholars and activists discussing the achievements of and challenges facing political activists in Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, and Saudi Arabia


Annual Conference of the Program on Arab Reform and Democracy Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law (CDDRL)

Stanford University May 12-13, 2011 Bechtel Conference Center, Stanford University


Thursday May 12, 2011

8:30-9:00 Welcome


9:00-9:45 Opening Speech Activism in the Middle East: A Framework Ellen Lust, Yale University


9:45-10:15 Break


10:15-12:15 Tunisia and Egypt Chair: Ellen Lust, Yale University Toward a Second Republic in Tunisia Christopher Alexander, Davidson


College Political Activism of Everyday Life: Lessons from the Tunisian Revolution Nabiha Jerad


Tunisia Factors Leading to the Egyptian Revolution; Where are We Now?Ahmed Salah, Egypt


Discussant: Michele Dunne, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace






The Gulf Chair: Larry Diamond, Stanford University The 2011 Uprising in Bahrain and its Consequences on the Participative Institutions Laurence Louër, Sciences Po


Activism in Bahrain and the Struggle for Reform? Maryam Al Khawaja, Bahrain Centre for Human Rights


Saudi Arabia: The Impossible Revolution? Stéphane Lacroix, Sciences Po


Challenges to Realistic Political Reforms in Yemen Munir Mawari, Yemen






Syria and Lebanon Chair: Lina Khatib, Stanford University


Activism and the Orphan Reform in Lebanon, Ziad Majed, American University of Paris


Syria from Political Activism to Popular Uprising: A Roadmap to Democracy Radwan Ziadeh, George Washington University


Discussant: Daniel Brumberg, Georgetown University


Friday May 13, 2011


Palestine Chair: Khalil Barhoum, Stanford University


Pretending Palestine is Normal Nathan Brown, George Washington University


Palestine: The Non-violent Popular Struggle for Freedom and the Future of Democracy Mustafa Barghouti, MP, Palestine


10:30-11:00 Break



Jordan and Morocco Chair: Hicham Ben Abdallah, Stanford University


A Decade of Struggling Reform Efforts in Jordan: The Resilience of the Rentier System Marwan Muasher, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


Assessing Current Public Perceptions of Political Activism Development in Jordan Amer Bani Amer, Al-Hayat Center for Civil Society Development


Morocco: Activist Revival vs. Autocratic Resilience Ahmed Benchemsi, Stanford University


Discussant: Sean Yom, Temple University




Lunch 2:00-4:00


Concluding Roundtable Discussion and Reflections Chair: Larry Diamond, Stanford University


Workshop: Climate Change in the MENA region

Climate change presents clear and present challenges to the social, political, and economic well being of North Africa and the Middle East  (MENA). There is broad consensus on this point; however, there are significant variations from country to country about what addressing these challenges entails.  The region exists as a number of unique matrices of geography, energy, security, and resource management for which there are not yet coherent policies at all the necessary levels of domestic and transnational governance.  A deeper and more sophisticated body of knowledge regarding the unique challenges facing the region must be developed in tandem with development of clearer political will, so that regional actors may progress down the path of informed, proactive adaptation.  The alternative is a more costly path of deferred and impromptu reactions when environmental changes can no longer be ignored.


Regional Overview: Geography, Climate, and Environmental Issues


The majority of the land in MENA is arid or semi-arid dryland.  Rainfall is highly variable but overall tends to be scarce—52% of the region receives less than 100mm per year.  Some areas, such as parts of Syria, receive as much as 1,500mm annually, though the rate of loss in all parts of MENA due to evaporation and runoff is quite high.   The northern regions of Algeria, Libya and Egypt, as well as the bulk of Morocco, Tunisia, Iraq, and Iran are arid and semi-arid.  Vast swathes of Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and the Persian Gulf states are classified as “hyper-arid” and are unsuitable for agriculture.  These hyper-arid regions are ill-suited for habitation and have very low population density, though ‘desertified’ and some hyper-arid areas can be made available for human use through targeted rehabilitation and management schemes.  Iraq, Lebanon and Syria are considered water-abundant.